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The Portuguese in Ceylon

I’tisam al-Din’s Shigarfnamah includes a long passage about the Portuguese and the manner in which they arrived in the East and eventually colonized Ceylon (present-day Sri Lanka). Here’s a passage from Pieris, P. E. (Paulus Edward). Ceylon and the Portuguese,

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Posted in Image, Knowledge base

I’tisam al-Din’s Shigarfnamah, 2: hat-wearing Europeans arrive

Unless otherwise marked with KH (initials of Kaiser Haq), the passages below are translated from Farsi text by myself. Farsi text: Mirza I’tisam al-Din. Shigarfnamah Vilayet. Toronto: Foundation for Iranian Studies, 2014. A brief account of the coming of the

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Posted in Archival material, Script